Most Broadcast and sound engineering technicians have an associate’s degree or vocational certification, although some are hired with only a high school diploma. Some formal training, gained through either work experience or education, is often required. Audio and video equipment technicians need to have at least a high school diploma to be eligible for entry-level positions. However, many also have an associate’s degree or vocational certificate. Technical training for audio and video equipment technicians may take several months to a year to complete. In this training, they get hands-on experience with the equipment they will use in many entry-level positions. Coursework and practical experience from a high school or college audiovisual club can prepare a student to be an audio and video equipment technician. Similarly, broadcast technicians need at least a high school diploma or a GED, although many also have some college education or a vocational training certificate in a related field. Because of the competitiveness of the industry, an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in broadcast technology, electronics, computer networking, or a related field can help a technician's career. Technicians who have work experience and formal training in their field will have the best opportunities for a job. Because technology is constantly improving, technicians often enroll in continuing education and receive on-the-job training to become skilled in new equipment and systems. On-the-job training may include topics such as setting up cables, testing electrical equipment, learning the codes and standards of the industry, and following safety procedures. Experienced workers with strong technical skills can become supervisory technicians or chief engineers. A college degree in engineering is typically needed to become chief engineer at large television stations. Technicians need to recognize problems with the equipment and propose possible solutions to them. Employers typically desire applicants with a variety of skills who are able to set up equipment, maintain the equipment, and troubleshoot and solve any problems.