A conductor is a vital part of any ensemble performing music, acting as the director to keep the performers unified and on cue. A profession which dates far back into the Middle Ages, conducting has taken many forms and followed many traditions through the centuries, only taking on its most modern incarnation in the early 19th century as a dedicated, non-instrumented position. The classic image of a leader standing in front of an ensemble of musical artists using a thin wooden baton to direct the performance harkens back to the time of Felix Mendelssohn, who was the first to be credited with the modern baton's use.
A musical director can be necessary to a variety of performing groups, from choirs, marching bands, orchestras, and other instrumented groups. The exact title of the position can vary depending on seniority or the specific type of group being directed, including "musical director" in an orchestral setting, "choral director" or "choirmaster" when directing a choir, "bandmaster" when the ensemble is primarily brass and percussion instruments. A musical director who has excelled in the field and achieved a certain level of seniority may gain the title of "maestro", a coveted honour and tradition.
A conductor directs and shapes a musical performance by an ensemble, from its infancy in rehearsal to the eventual exhibition in front of an audience. He or she communicates beat, tempo, and at times, the emotion to be conveyed while playing a musical piece to unify the performing group. As a musical director, they are often paired with a particular performing group throughout many performances, guiding the artists through rehearsals and giving vocal feedback to shape the outcome of the musical piece. The exact nature of a director's duty and the traditions associated with it can vary from one venue to another, and even by the skill-level of the particular ensemble being directed, which can range from professionals to amateur artists. While some are expected to follow formal rules that dictate gestures, duties, and non-vocal nuances, others are allowed considerable freedom with their means of communicating artistic direction.
Being a conductor can be challenging and requires a deep understanding of musical theory beyond simple appreciation. Among many guidelines laid out by Sir Henry Wood in 1945, a background in musical performance is a must. Whether that is through obtaining a formal musical education at a university, or being educated through private instruction, preferably by an established musical director. It is also recommended that one interested also be proficient with at least one musical instrument, but familiar with a variety of others, the piano and a string instrument being the most preferable. A musical director must understand the elements of musical composition from the ground up, including tempo, harmony, dynamics, and theory.
The position requires a considerable amount of skill beyond musical comprehension, as well. Firm leadership is required to keep the ensemble on cue and working together to convey the musical piece as a unified whole. Being able to quickly read and process sheet music at a glance is vital during the execution of a performance. Physically being able to follow through gestures quickly and consistently will help the artists understand how to pace and shape their individual responses. Also, the ability to hear the group in its entirety, but to still be able to pick out the pitch of individual instruments is very important to keeping the overall harmony.
Even before the final performance, a conductor must be able to direct musicians through rehearsal and give constructive criticism to ensure the best possible outcome. No matter the venue or title, to be a musical director is to be the leader of a group, applying personal understanding and expertise of musical composition as a whole to those who are familiar primarily with only specific elements of its performance.
The workplace of a conductor can vary greatly, from a school classroom to world-renowned musical halls. In the instances of amateur performances, the performance venue may take place in the same environment as rehearsals, such as a church or recreation centre. As the director of a military band, the workplace may centre around a specific military base and requires the director to be an enlisted member. However, as the master of a professional orchestra or choir, the workplace can be a particular concert hall that acts as the ensemble's base, but can also be a world-wide venue, one that requires frequent travel between performances and constantly changing bases.