A gynecologist performs a variety of tests and exams focused on women's health. Gynecologists are responsible for performing the standard yearly exam on adult women to ensure their reproductive health. During this exam, the doctor will physically examine the woman, perform a pap smear, perform STD tests, complete a breast exam, and monitor the woman's use of birth control. Gynecologists are also sometimes certified as obstetricians, and will monitor the health of the mother and the fetus during a pregnancy.
In addition to the above, a gynecologist must also monitor some of the same medical conditions in women as her general practitioner. For example, if a woman has diabetes, her gynecological specialist must inform her of how her disease is impacting her reproductive organs. Gynecologists also diagnose problems that women may be having with their reproductive organs, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome or cervical cancer. They may also check for vaginal infections and urinary tract infections in women complaining of lower abdominal pain or sexual pain. Gynecologists also sometime perform minor surgeries on women's reproductive organs, such a tube tying.