Small animal veterinarians typically work in veterinary clinics or veterinary hospitals, or both. Large animal veterinarians often spend more time traveling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them (zoos, farms, etc).
As opposed to a human doctor's office, which only has exam rooms, a veterinarian's office is more like a hospital with a full pharmacy. Waiting rooms are available often with separate areas for dogs, cats, and exotics. Laboratory to include microscope, parasitology preps, chemistry analyzer, and blood count capability. A full surgery with orthopedic and general surgery packs, and general anesthesia equipment. A kennel for hospitalizing sick animals, and to quarantine infectious ones. An X-ray machine with a dark room for processing films can still be found, although digital radiographs are increasingly more commonplace. And finally, a full dispensary pharmacy with oral, topical, and injectible drugs.
In comparison to human medicine, veterinarians charge only a fraction for the services rendered.