Introduction

Assessments are tools for detecting differences. Sokanu’s assessment detects differences in fit with jobs. This information is helpful in choosing a career, and in choosing the right person for a job.

Sometimes a lack of difference is desirable. To promote equal employment goals, it is helpful when protected groups score similarly to other groups. This report explores differences between groups on three grounds: ethnicity, gender, and age.

Group differences are measured using Cohen’s d (Cohen, 1988), which takes into account both the size and consistency of the difference between groups. When interpreting Cohen’s d, .2 is considered a small effect, .5 is a medium effect, and .8 is a large effect.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity analyses compare people with Hispanic or Black origins to people of Caucasian descent. For people with Hispanic ethnicity, there were no large or moderate differences. All 138 scales showed either small differences or favored Hispanics. For people with Black ethnicity, there were no large differences, and 4 moderate differences: people with Black ethnicity scored lower than people with Caucasian ethnicity on Interest in Nature and Agriculture (d = .42), Investigative Holland code (d = .39), and Interest in Working with Animals (d = .47). The remaining 134 scales showed either small differences or favored Blacks.

Taken together, ethnic differences are generally small, suggesting that Sokanu's assessment is appropriate for use across protected ethnic groups.

Scale Ethnicity Sample
Size
Average Standard Deviation Cohen's
d (?)
Holland Codes
5-point scale from 1= Hate it to 5= Love it
Artistic Black 411 2.93 0.89 -0.08
Hispanic 698 2.92 0.85 -0.07
White 5057 2.86 0.86
Conventional Black 410 2.30 0.85 0.06
Hispanic 698 2.35 0.84 0.00
White 5062 2.35 0.83
Enterprising Black 407 2.59 0.73 -0.04
Hispanic 691 2.64 0.73 -0.11
White 5022 2.56 0.68
Investigative Black 410 2.65 0.94 0.39*
Hispanic 698 2.90 0.94 0.11
White 5059 3.00 0.91
Realistic Black 410 2.01 0.78 0.07
Hispanic 697 2.11 0.81 -0.05
White 5062 2.06 0.79
Social Black 411 2.93 0.82 0.02
Hispanic 697 2.86 0.79 0.11
White 5060 2.94 0.77
Work Styles / Personality
5 point scale from 1= Strongly disagree to 5= Strongly agree
Achievement/Effort Black 409 3.78 0.72 -0.18
Hispanic 694 3.73 0.67 -0.12
White 5056 3.65 0.70
Adaptability/Flexibility Black 410 3.58 0.59 -0.16
Hispanic 693 3.46 0.59 0.04
White 5047 3.48 0.60
Analytical thinking Black 410 3.68 0.70 0.14
Hispanic 693 3.76 0.72 0.04
White 5052 3.78 0.71
Attention to detail Black 408 3.57 0.74 -0.04
Hispanic 695 3.62 0.71 -0.10
White 5058 3.54 0.73
Concern for others Black 410 3.75 0.68 0.01
Hispanic 694 3.62 0.71 0.21
White 5049 3.76 0.66
Cooperation Black 406 3.85 0.63 -0.11
Hispanic 688 3.72 0.61 0.10
White 5017 3.78 0.59
Dependability Black 410 3.81 0.68 0.15
Hispanic 695 3.77 0.64 0.21
White 5050 3.90 0.63
Independence Black 407 3.64 0.55 -0.17
Hispanic 687 3.57 0.51 -0.03
White 5015 3.55 0.55
Initiative Black 409 3.53 0.61 0.05
Hispanic 694 3.49 0.59 0.13
White 5036 3.56 0.60
Innovation Black 410 3.89 0.79 -0.10
Hispanic 694 3.78 0.83 0.04
White 5058 3.81 0.82
Integrity Black 410 3.75 0.75 0.10
Hispanic 693 3.73 0.74 0.14
White 5053 3.83 0.74
Leadership Black 410 3.30 0.95 -0.01
Hispanic 695 3.31 0.93 -0.02
White 5057 3.30 0.94
Persistence Black 409 3.82 0.62 -0.18
Hispanic 694 3.78 0.65 -0.11
White 5053 3.71 0.59
Self control Black 410 3.59 0.75 -0.06
Hispanic 695 3.46 0.76 0.11
White 5052 3.55 0.76
Social orientation Black 409 3.11 0.88 0.11
Hispanic 696 3.12 0.84 0.09
White 5051 3.20 0.83
Basic Interests
5-point scale from 1= Hate it to 5= Love it
Adventure Black 409 2.64 0.96 0.20
Hispanic 694 2.93 0.97 -0.09
White 5052 2.84 0.97
Athletics Black 410 2.50 1.07 0.01
Hispanic 695 2.50 1.02 0.01
White 5048 2.51 1.02
Beauty & style Black 408 2.84 1.00 -0.24
Hispanic 694 2.69 1.00 -0.09
White 5030 2.61 0.95
Business Black 410 2.89 1.02 -0.02
Hispanic 696 2.87 1.03 0.00
White 5053 2.87 0.99
Counseling and helping Black 409 3.11 0.97 -0.13
Hispanic 696 2.93 0.91 0.06
White 5051 2.99 0.93
Creative arts Black 410 3.21 1.10 -0.04
Hispanic 695 3.23 1.08 -0.06
White 5052 3.17 1.08
Creative writing & journalism Black 407 3.13 1.05 0.02
Hispanic 695 3.13 1.08 0.02
White 5051 3.15 1.05
Culinary arts Black 410 2.79 1.03 0.06
Hispanic 694 2.80 0.99 0.06
White 5048 2.86 0.98
Engineering Black 409 2.29 0.93 0.15
Hispanic 695 2.49 0.94 -0.06
White 5051 2.44 0.94
Family activity Black 408 3.48 0.90 -0.05
Hispanic 695 3.43 0.80 0.02
White 5050 3.44 0.79
Finance Black 410 2.60 0.97 -0.06
Hispanic 695 2.63 0.97 -0.09
White 5050 2.54 0.96
Green industry Black 410 3.08 0.95 0.17
Hispanic 694 3.27 0.95 -0.03
White 5035 3.24 0.93
Healthcare service Black 409 2.68 0.98 0.01
Hispanic 694 2.68 0.96 0.02
White 5052 2.70 0.91
Human relations management Black 410 2.87 0.93 -0.01
Hispanic 694 2.78 0.88 0.10
White 5049 2.86 0.85
Information technology Black 410 2.42 1.00 0.04
Hispanic 694 2.57 1.02 -0.12
White 5054 2.46 0.95
Law Black 409 2.56 1.04 0.00
Hispanic 694 2.46 1.00 0.09
White 5053 2.55 0.98
Life science Black 410 2.47 0.97 0.28
Hispanic 695 2.65 0.99 0.10
White 5051 2.75 0.98
Management Black 410 2.62 0.93 0.11
Hispanic 695 2.74 0.95 -0.02
White 5050 2.72 0.89
Manual labor Black 410 1.78 0.70 0.07
Hispanic 695 1.91 0.71 -0.13
White 5054 1.83 0.68
Mathematics Black 410 2.19 1.06 0.14
Hispanic 695 2.44 1.10 -0.09
White 5050 2.34 1.05
Military Black 408 1.98 1.00 -0.02
Hispanic 691 2.10 1.11 -0.13
White 5046 1.96 1.03
Nature and agriculture Black 405 2.18 0.77 0.42*
Hispanic 688 2.45 0.76 0.06
White 5023 2.49 0.76
Office clerical work Black 409 2.54 0.82 0.05
Hispanic 693 2.54 0.80 0.05
White 5049 2.58 0.81
Performing arts Black 408 3.14 1.06 -0.29
Hispanic 693 2.90 1.04 -0.07
White 5049 2.83 1.04
Personal service Black 409 2.51 0.81 0.08
Hispanic 695 2.52 0.81 0.06
White 5043 2.57 0.76
Physical science Black 410 2.31 0.95 0.24
Hispanic 696 2.55 1.02 -0.01
White 5050 2.55 0.98
Politics Black 409 2.39 0.99 0.00
Hispanic 695 2.41 1.07 -0.02
White 5047 2.39 1.01
Professional advising Black 409 2.94 1.00 0.06
Hispanic 696 2.85 0.94 0.16
White 5054 3.00 0.94
Protective services Black 406 2.11 0.82 0.14
Hispanic 688 2.21 0.86 0.02
White 5013 2.22 0.83
Religion & spirituality Black 406 2.75 1.07 -0.33
Hispanic 695 2.36 1.02 0.04
White 5047 2.41 1.03
Sales Black 408 2.40 0.96 -0.07
Hispanic 693 2.40 1.02 -0.07
White 5052 2.33 0.93
Skilled trades Black 410 2.11 0.92 0.18
Hispanic 695 2.26 0.94 0.02
White 5055 2.29 0.95
Social sciences Black 410 3.39 0.97 0.09
Hispanic 695 3.41 0.95 0.07
White 5049 3.48 0.91
Teaching Black 410 2.93 0.97 0.16
Hispanic 696 2.94 1.00 0.15
White 5047 3.09 0.95
Technical writing Black 409 2.17 0.84 0.08
Hispanic 694 2.18 0.81 0.07
White 5054 2.24 0.83
Working with animals Black 409 2.43 1.06 0.47*
Hispanic 694 2.77 1.01 0.14
White 5052 2.91 1.03
Skills Preferences
5-point scale from 1=Important to avoid in my career to 5=Important to have in my career
Coordinating with people Black 407 3.77 1.01 -0.09
Hispanic 693 3.69 0.98 0.00
White 5057 3.69 0.90
Active listening Black 409 4.03 0.87 -0.17
Hispanic 694 3.96 0.82 -0.08
White 5055 3.89 0.81
Being socially perceptive Black 406 3.87 0.97 -0.05
Hispanic 691 3.82 0.96 0.00
White 5045 3.83 0.92
Choosing equipment Black 407 3.20 1.00 -0.06
Hispanic 690 3.34 0.91 -0.22
White 5040 3.14 0.91
Computer programming Black 409 2.47 1.13 -0.02
Hispanic 693 2.58 1.13 -0.13
White 5053 2.44 1.05
Critical thinking Black 410 3.96 0.91 0.08
Hispanic 694 4.03 0.89 0.01
White 5058 4.03 0.85
Decision making Black 409 3.97 0.87 -0.19
Hispanic 695 3.84 0.94 -0.05
White 5058 3.80 0.89
Designing equipment Black 408 2.68 1.07 0.04
Hispanic 693 2.89 1.08 -0.16
White 5048 2.73 1.00
Fixing things Black 408 2.81 1.13 0.08
Hispanic 695 2.93 1.16 -0.03
White 5056 2.90 1.09
Helping people Black 409 4.04 0.95 -0.13
Hispanic 693 3.82 1.03 0.11
White 5056 3.92 0.93
Installing equipment or programs Black 409 2.48 1.11 -0.06
Hispanic 693 2.48 1.07 -0.06
White 5054 2.42 1.00
Learning new things Black 410 4.45 0.68 -0.09
Hispanic 695 4.46 0.67 -0.11
White 5057 4.39 0.66
Maintaining equipment Black 410 2.68 1.04 -0.15
Hispanic 694 2.65 1.01 -0.12
White 5048 2.53 0.97
Managing money Black 409 3.20 1.11 -0.19
Hispanic 693 3.20 1.08 -0.19
White 5057 3.01 1.01
Managing people Black 407 3.42 1.10 -0.11
Hispanic 695 3.41 1.06 -0.10
White 5055 3.31 1.03
Managing things Black 409 3.42 1.03 -0.08
Hispanic 694 3.35 0.99 -0.01
White 5054 3.35 0.93
Mathematics Black 408 2.75 1.18 0.16
Hispanic 693 3.02 1.18 -0.08
White 5049 2.93 1.11
Monitoring equipment Black 408 2.54 0.99 -0.11
Hispanic 692 2.60 1.00 -0.16
White 5049 2.44 0.92
Monitoring performance Black 409 3.51 0.99 -0.12
Hispanic 690 3.48 0.93 -0.08
White 5049 3.40 0.89
Negotiation Black 410 3.40 1.11 -0.20
Hispanic 694 3.22 1.10 -0.03
White 5052 3.20 1.04
Operating equipment Black 408 2.77 1.07 -0.05
Hispanic 693 2.86 1.09 -0.14
White 5050 2.72 1.00
Performing quality control checks Black 405 2.89 1.06 -0.16
Hispanic 691 2.90 1.06 -0.17
White 5045 2.74 0.96
Persuasion Black 410 3.39 1.06 -0.15
Hispanic 690 3.37 1.10 -0.13
White 5050 3.23 1.04
Reading Black 410 3.96 0.92 -0.07
Hispanic 695 3.86 0.95 0.04
White 5058 3.90 0.89
Science Black 409 3.02 1.19 0.10
Hispanic 694 3.27 1.22 -0.12
White 5058 3.14 1.15
Talking Black 408 3.93 0.94 -0.07
Hispanic 694 3.81 0.98 0.07
White 5056 3.87 0.91
Teaching Black 408 3.32 1.03 0.12
Hispanic 694 3.33 1.03 0.11
White 5056 3.43 0.96
Time management Black 409 3.65 0.95 -0.12
Hispanic 691 3.61 0.92 -0.07
White 5046 3.54 0.88
Troubleshooting Black 404 3.47 0.98 0.15
Hispanic 691 3.53 0.93 0.08
White 5037 3.60 0.92
Writing Black 410 3.62 1.05 -0.07
Hispanic 695 3.51 1.09 0.04
White 5056 3.56 1.03
Abilities Preferences
5-point scale from 1= Important to avoid in my career to 5= Important to have in my career
Coordination of limbs Black 408 3.17 0.98 0.00
Hispanic 689 3.15 0.95 0.03
White 5031 3.17 0.90
Creative thinking Black 409 4.22 0.85 -0.05
Hispanic 694 4.14 0.87 0.04
White 5059 4.18 0.82
Deductive reasoning Black 404 3.78 0.85 0.08
Hispanic 690 3.89 0.83 -0.05
White 5031 3.85 0.77
Finger dexterity Black 406 2.89 0.98 0.04
Hispanic 685 2.87 0.98 0.06
White 5013 2.93 0.89
Flexibility Black 410 3.62 1.06 -0.14
Hispanic 692 3.54 1.05 -0.06
White 5052 3.48 1.01
Focused attention Black 409 3.91 0.81 -0.11
Hispanic 692 3.93 0.82 -0.14
White 5049 3.83 0.78
Foreseeing problems Black 406 3.80 0.89 0.00
Hispanic 690 3.84 0.84 -0.05
White 5046 3.80 0.80
Inductive reasoning Black 405 3.72 0.85 0.05
Hispanic 690 3.78 0.86 -0.02
White 5017 3.76 0.80
Manual dexterity Black 402 3.18 1.00 -0.07
Hispanic 688 3.15 1.00 -0.04
White 5000 3.12 0.89
Memory Black 410 3.77 0.93 -0.13
Hispanic 693 3.74 0.92 -0.10
White 5055 3.65 0.87
Multitasking Black 409 3.74 0.94 -0.14
Hispanic 694 3.65 0.89 -0.04
White 5050 3.61 0.91
Physical endurance Black 410 2.86 1.20 -0.02
Hispanic 693 2.89 1.13 -0.05
White 5051 2.83 1.06
Physical strength Black 408 2.84 1.18 -0.07
Hispanic 693 2.83 1.13 -0.06
White 5053 2.77 1.04
Reaction time Black 408 3.39 0.98 -0.15
Hispanic 692 3.40 0.94 -0.17
White 5035 3.26 0.88
Spatial awareness Black 403 3.55 0.92 -0.11
Hispanic 685 3.48 0.86 -0.03
White 5017 3.46 0.83
Visualization Black 409 3.95 0.85 -0.18
Hispanic 692 3.84 0.87 -0.05
White 5042 3.80 0.82
Can't Stands
5-point scale from 0=Don't mind at all, 1=Don't mind much, 3=Nice to avoid, 5=Important to avoid, 10=Must avoid!
Competition Black 408 2.78 2.67 0.04
Hispanic 694 2.63 2.55 0.10
White 5059 2.88 2.48
Coordinating or leading others Black 408 1.45 1.97 -0.04
Hispanic 694 1.50 2.08 -0.07
White 5052 1.37 1.91
Cramped spaces & awkward positions Black 408 5.05 3.28 -0.14
Hispanic 689 4.79 3.28 -0.06
White 5047 4.62 3.05
Dangerous work environment Black 408 5.44 3.62 -0.27
Hispanic 694 4.26 3.24 0.09
White 5056 4.55 3.27
Dealing with angry or rude people Black 409 3.86 3.12 -0.20
Hispanic 696 3.66 3.00 -0.13
White 5061 3.32 2.65
Dealing with customers Black 409 2.19 2.55 -0.13
Hispanic 696 2.17 2.53 -0.12
White 5060 1.90 2.22
Dealing with physically aggressive people Black 409 5.90 3.52 -0.15
Hispanic 696 5.52 3.57 -0.04
White 5058 5.40 3.31
Driving a car or truck Black 409 5.03 3.53 -0.03
Hispanic 696 4.95 3.56 0.00
White 5059 4.94 3.40
Exposure to heights Black 408 4.09 3.58 -0.24
Hispanic 695 3.26 3.14 0.01
White 5056 3.29 3.22
Frequent decision making Black 409 1.33 1.59 0.00
Hispanic 695 1.41 1.74 -0.05
White 5055 1.32 1.64
Kneeling or crawling Black 410 3.87 3.19 -0.16
Hispanic 690 3.50 3.10 -0.03
White 5049 3.42 2.81
Public speaking Black 409 2.43 2.81 0.04
Hispanic 694 2.63 2.98 -0.03
White 5059 2.54 2.85
Repetitive motions Black 403 2.53 2.32 0.03
Hispanic 691 2.49 2.30 0.04
White 5035 2.59 2.24
Resonsibility for people's health and safety Black 409 2.60 2.59 -0.06
Hispanic 694 2.82 2.73 -0.16
White 5053 2.46 2.27
Responsibity for results of others Black 408 2.98 2.72 -0.20
Hispanic 693 2.76 2.54 -0.11
White 5051 2.50 2.30
Sitting most of the time Black 407 2.35 2.25 0.03
Hispanic 695 2.47 2.57 -0.03
White 5058 2.40 2.33
Standing most of the time Black 409 3.05 2.82 -0.20
Hispanic 696 2.56 2.58 0.00
White 5062 2.57 2.41
Time pressure Black 408 2.38 2.23 -0.13
Hispanic 692 2.52 2.37 -0.20
White 5053 2.11 2.01
Unpredictable work schedules Black 409 2.67 2.46 -0.08
Hispanic 693 2.53 2.42 -0.02
White 5054 2.48 2.20
Working in extreme temperatures Black 409 4.80 3.25 -0.22
Hispanic 695 4.25 3.28 -0.05
White 5060 4.11 3.08
Working indoors all the time Black 407 1.53 1.77 0.08
Hispanic 694 1.99 2.47 -0.16
White 5058 1.68 1.87
Working more than 40 hours a week Black 408 1.95 2.26 0.01
Hispanic 693 2.06 2.32 -0.05
White 5046 1.97 1.99
Working outdoors exposed to weather Black 408 4.30 3.43 -0.29
Hispanic 695 3.24 3.14 0.05
White 5060 3.40 3.06
Organizational Culture
5-point scale from 1= Least important to 5= Most important
Aggressiveness Black 407 1.45 0.95 -0.21
Hispanic 691 1.42 0.92 -0.17
White 5000 1.29 0.78
Caring about employees Black 407 3.21 1.44 0.09
Hispanic 691 3.00 1.37 0.25
White 4998 3.33 1.36
Fairness / Justice Black 407 3.12 1.42 -0.07
Hispanic 692 3.07 1.46 -0.03
White 4998 3.03 1.35
Flexibility / adapting to change Black 408 3.21 1.37 -0.12
Hispanic 692 3.13 1.40 -0.06
White 4996 3.05 1.33
Getting things done Black 407 3.35 1.25 -0.04
Hispanic 691 3.22 1.36 0.07
White 4999 3.30 1.32
Innovation Black 407 3.06 1.44 0.06
Hispanic 692 3.21 1.46 -0.05
White 5000 3.14 1.40
Openness and honesty Black 407 3.30 1.28 0.08
Hispanic 692 3.37 1.32 0.03
White 4999 3.41 1.29
Precision Black 407 2.18 1.20 0.09
Hispanic 691 2.41 1.23 -0.09
White 4999 2.30 1.25
Providing high quality products or services Black 407 2.87 1.42 0.21
Hispanic 692 3.02 1.44 0.11
White 4999 3.17 1.40
Self-control Black 407 2.24 1.17 -0.22
Hispanic 691 2.15 1.17 -0.15
White 4999 1.99 1.11
Taking Chances Black 408 2.35 1.37 -0.11
Hispanic 692 2.53 1.26 -0.25
White 4999 2.21 1.26
Valuing customers Black 408 2.65 1.30 0.10
Hispanic 692 2.48 1.29 0.22
White 4997 2.78 1.33

* Moderate difference, ** Large difference
Positive Cohen's d values indicate that the majority group scored higher than the minority group.

Gender

Results from Sokanu's assessment are consistent with past findings on how men and women report having differing interests. Women showed less interest than men on: Engineering (d = .98), Skilled Trades (d = .77), Information Technology (d = .76), Realistic Holland code (d = .74), Protective Services (d = .71), Military (d = .70), Adventure (d = .69), Athletics (d = .57), Finance (d = .52), Physical Science (d = .50), Mathematics (d = .50), Business (d = .44), Politics (d = .42), and Management (d = .40). Men showed less interest than women on Beauty/Style (d = -.82) and Culinary Arts (d = -.40).

Sokanu's skills & abilities sections measure preference for using or avoiding certain skills/abilities in a job. Again, differences mirrored conventional stereotypes for tasks typically associated with men. Compared to women, men showed more interest in using Installation skills (d =.75), Operation and Control skills (d = .54), Technology Design skills (d = .52), Equipment Selection skills (d = .52), Programming skills (d = .49), Operation Monitoring skills (d = .48), Repairing skills (d = .46), Physical Strength abilities (d = .43), Mathematics skills (d = .42), and Equipment Maintenance skills (d = .42).

In personality, moderate differences occurred on two traits. Men tended to score higher than women on the work style of Analytical Thinking (d = .43), while women tended to score higher than men on the work style of Concern for Others (d = -.42).

Taken together, results suggest few gender differences in personality, and expected gender differences in interests.

Scale Gender Sample
Size
Average Standard Deviation Cohen's
d (?)
Holland Codes
5-point scale from 1=Hate it to 5=Love it
Artistic Female 1893 2.74 0.88 0.04
Male 1143 2.78 0.85
Conventional Female 1904 2.29 0.84 0.19
Male 1152 2.45 0.81
Enterprising Female 1885 2.48 0.68 0.29
Male 1134 2.68 0.70
Investigative Female 1905 2.84 0.94 0.18
Male 1147 3.00 0.89
Realistic Female 1905 1.86 0.71 0.76**
Male 1152 2.43 0.81
Social Female 1897 2.98 0.78 -0.28
Male 1147 2.76 0.81
Work Styles / Personality
5-point scale from 1=Strongly disagree to 5=Strongly agree
Achievement/Effort Female 1656 3.68 0.68 -0.11
Male 980 3.61 0.73
Adaptability/Flexibility Female 1653 3.45 0.60 0
Male 972 3.45 0.63
Analytical thinking Female 1649 3.64 0.74 0.43*
Male 968 3.95 0.69
Attention to detail Female 1653 3.62 0.72 -0.2
Male 969 3.47 0.76
Concern for others Female 1651 3.82 0.65 -0.42*
Male 975 3.54 0.70
Cooperation Female 1656 3.81 0.61 -0.13
Male 972 3.73 0.60
Dependability Female 1653 3.92 0.65 -0.16
Male 970 3.81 0.69
Independence Female 1663 3.49 0.55 0.2
Male 976 3.60 0.56
Initiative Female 1644 3.56 0.59 -0.14
Male 974 3.48 0.62
Innovation Female 1670 3.70 0.85 0.13
Male 983 3.81 0.83
Integrity Female 1650 3.83 0.72 -0.25
Male 973 3.65 0.79
Leadership Female 1673 3.21 0.92 0.25
Male 983 3.44 0.93
Persistence Female 1652 3.70 0.59 0.08
Male 973 3.74 0.64
Self control Female 1657 3.51 0.76 0.14
Male 976 3.61 0.73
Social orientation Female 1659 3.20 0.83 0.01
Male 975 3.21 0.80
Basic Interests
5-point scale from 1=Hate it to 5=Love it
Adventure Female 1577 2.57 0.89 0.73**
Male 900 3.23 0.94
Athletics Female 1579 2.29 0.94 0.6*
Male 903 2.87 1.04
Beauty & style Female 1394 2.90 0.92 -0.83**
Male 796 2.17 0.80
Business Female 1574 2.75 0.99 0.47*
Male 911 3.21 0.98
Counseling and helping Female 1577 3.10 0.94 -0.29
Male 903 2.83 0.91
Creative arts Female 1579 3.18 1.09 -0.16
Male 907 3.01 1.04
Creative writing & journalism Female 1400 3.11 1.05 -0.06
Male 801 3.05 1.04
Culinary arts Female 1575 2.95 0.98 -0.4*
Male 910 2.56 0.89
Engineering Female 1581 2.16 0.83 1.02**
Male 905 3.05 0.93
Family activity Female 1391 3.51 0.83 -0.18
Male 796 3.37 0.78
Finance Female 1581 2.42 0.93 0.53*
Male 905 2.93 1.01
Green industry Female 1401 3.20 0.96 0.13
Male 802 3.32 0.92
Healthcare service Female 1578 2.73 0.95 0.01
Male 903 2.73 0.89
Human relations management Female 1396 2.88 0.86 -0.04
Male 798 2.85 0.86
Information technology Female 1583 2.24 0.88 0.79**
Male 909 2.96 1.00
Law Female 1577 2.53 1.01 0.1
Male 902 2.63 0.96
Life science Female 1599 2.65 0.99 0.14
Male 927 2.79 0.96
Management Female 1574 2.62 0.89 0.41*
Male 904 2.98 0.90
Manual labor Female 1573 1.73 0.62 0.4*
Male 906 2.00 0.75
Mathematics Female 1402 2.22 1.02 0.51*
Male 799 2.75 1.09
Military Female 1390 1.69 0.82 0.73**
Male 798 2.38 1.15
Nature and agriculture Female 1392 2.37 0.73 0.26
Male 797 2.56 0.80
Office clerical work Female 1392 2.68 0.83 -0.22
Male 793 2.50 0.77
Performing arts Female 1395 2.79 1.03 -0.03
Male 798 2.75 1.03
Personal service Female 1398 2.63 0.74 -0.38
Male 796 2.34 0.74
Physical science Female 1584 2.35 0.93 0.54*
Male 918 2.86 0.96
Politics Female 1401 2.25 0.97 0.42*
Male 802 2.66 1.05
Professional advising Female 1399 2.97 0.93 0.07
Male 798 3.03 0.90
Protective services Female 1577 2.01 0.75 0.73**
Male 902 2.59 0.89
Religion & spirituality Female 1402 2.38 0.98 0.06
Male 799 2.45 1.07
Sales Female 1392 2.23 0.90 0.38
Male 797 2.59 0.99
Skilled trades Female 1579 2.03 0.85 0.77**
Male 905 2.72 1.00
Social sciences Female 1574 3.55 0.89 -0.19
Male 908 3.38 0.92
Teaching Female 1581 3.10 0.97 -0.1
Male 909 3.00 0.96
Technical writing Female 1396 2.17 0.82 0.27
Male 801 2.39 0.84
Working with animals Female 1403 2.83 1.06 -0.15
Male 801 2.68 0.97
Skills Preferences
5-point scale from 1=Important to avoid in my career to 5=Important to have in my career
Coordinating with people Female 1488 3.82 0.85 -0.09
Male 867 3.74 0.92
Active listening Female 1485 3.96 0.79 -0.18
Male 864 3.82 0.82
Being socially perceptive Female 1480 3.85 0.90 -0.25
Male 862 3.62 0.97
Choosing equipment Female 1484 2.93 0.89 0.51*
Male 864 3.38 0.89
Computer programming Female 1491 2.33 1.02 0.51*
662 869 2.87 1.13
Critical thinking Female 1484 3.88 0.89 0.32
Male 869 4.16 0.84
Decision making Female 1489 3.80 0.85 0.16
Male 870 3.94 0.89
Designing equipment Female 1487 2.56 0.97 0.53*
Male 866 3.08 1.00
Fixing things Female 1486 2.90 1.07 0.47*
Male 866 3.39 1.03
Helping people Female 1493 4.05 0.90 -0.32
Male 869 3.76 0.95
Installing equipment or programs Female 1489 2.20 0.93 0.74**
Male 869 2.93 1.05
Learning new things Female 1487 4.43 0.65 -0.03
Male 867 4.41 0.65
Maintaining equipment Female 1481 2.46 0.94 0.43*
Male 865 2.89 1.04
Managing money Female 1484 2.96 1.00 0.22
Male 865 3.19 1.06
Managing people Female 1485 3.33 0.98 0.09
Male 865 3.42 1.02
Managing things Female 1483 3.48 0.87 0.14
Male 864 3.60 0.87
Mathematics Female 1495 2.84 1.11 0.42*
Male 870 3.31 1.10
Monitoring equipment Female 1480 2.41 0.89 0.48*
Male 861 2.85 0.95
Monitoring performance Female 1484 3.39 0.88 0.06
Male 868 3.45 0.91
Negotiation Female 1485 3.11 1.04 0.24
Male 865 3.35 1.04
Operating equipment Female 1481 2.61 0.97 0.53*
Male 864 3.12 1.01
Performing quality control checks Female 1477 2.67 0.96 0.3
Male 859 2.96 0.98
Persuasion Female 1481 3.16 1.03 0.21
Male 863 3.37 1.00
Reading Female 1484 3.96 0.83 -0.23
Male 865 3.76 0.91
Science Female 1486 3.07 1.14 0.34
Male 866 3.44 1.09
Talking Female 1496 3.90 0.89 -0.06
Male 870 3.85 0.91
Teaching Female 1495 3.41 0.98 0.01
Male 868 3.42 0.99
Time management Female 1487 3.60 0.85 -0.21
Male 867 3.42 0.89
Troubleshooting Female 1481 3.40 0.96 0.3
Male 866 3.69 0.94
Writing Female 1487 3.68 0.93 -0.28
Male 863 3.40 1.07
Abilities Preferences
5-point scale from 1=Important to avoid in my career to 5=Important to have in my career
Coordination of limbs Female 1465 3.13 0.87 0.24
Male 849 3.34 0.89
Creative thinking Female 1477 4.12 0.83 0.08
Male 852 4.19 0.81
Deductive reasoning Female 1451 3.72 0.78 0.26
Male 844 3.93 0.83
Finger dexterity Female 1441 3.02 0.80 0.14
Male 835 3.13 0.84
Flexibility Female 1470 3.83 0.84 -0.05
Male 851 3.79 0.85
Focused attention Female 1471 3.85 0.76 0.01
Male 850 3.86 0.79
Foreseeing problems Female 1463 3.72 0.80 0.2
Male 850 3.89 0.80
Inductive reasoning Female 1448 3.67 0.79 0.28
Male 839 3.89 0.79
Manual dexterity Female 1432 3.07 0.82 0.2
Male 840 3.23 0.90
Memory Female 1472 3.68 0.82 0.06
Male 849 3.74 0.85
Multitasking Female 1469 3.68 0.86 -0.18
Male 850 3.52 0.95
Physical endurance Female 1471 2.78 1.01 0.39
Male 850 3.18 1.03
Physical strength Female 1469 2.65 1.02 0.44*
Male 851 3.10 1.05
Reaction time Female 1458 3.26 0.85 0.14
Male 848 3.38 0.92
Spatial awareness Female 1445 3.40 0.81 0.26
Male 843 3.61 0.83
Visualization Female 1469 3.84 0.77 0.11
Male 849 3.93 0.77
Can't Stands
5-point scale from 0=Don't mind at all, 1=Don't mind much, 3=Nice to avoid, 5=Important to avoid, 10=Must avoid!
Competition Female 1567 3.19 2.55 -0.28
Male 900 2.50 2.42
Coordinating or leading others Female 1566 1.43 1.94 0
Male 899 1.44 2.08
Cramped spaces & awkward positions Female 1565 4.92 3.15 -0.17
Male 894 4.40 3.05
Dangerous work environment Female 1569 5.34 3.36 -0.51*
Male 895 3.67 3.07
Dealing with angry or rude people Female 1571 3.63 2.86 -0.11
Male 902 3.31 2.76
Dealing with customers Female 1570 1.91 2.21 0.04
Male 897 2.01 2.30
Dealing with physically aggressive people Female 1570 5.94 3.37 -0.34
Male 897 4.81 3.21
Driving a car or truck Female 1570 5.69 3.45 -0.37
Male 895 4.41 3.36
Exposure to heights Female 1568 3.60 3.29 -0.14
Male 899 3.13 3.17
Frequent decision making Female 1569 1.51 1.81 -0.11
Male 900 1.31 1.78
Kneeling or crawling Female 1567 3.89 3.11 -0.2
Male 891 3.31 2.75
Public speaking Female 1565 2.77 2.95 -0.13
Male 895 2.38 2.90
Repetitive motions Female 1554 2.58 2.32 0
Male 892 2.59 2.27
Resonsibility for people's health and safety Female 1566 2.60 2.50 -0.03
Male 894 2.52 2.43
Responsibity for results of others Female 1567 2.72 2.39 -0.1
Male 892 2.48 2.40
Sitting most of the time Female 1569 2.52 2.43 -0.04
Male 896 2.43 2.38
Standing most of the time Female 1569 2.65 2.43 0.03
Male 896 2.71 2.54
Time pressure Female 1565 2.14 2.05 0.1
Male 895 2.35 2.21
Unpredictable work schedules Female 1563 2.63 2.25 -0.09
Male 895 2.44 2.24
Working in extreme temperatures Female 1567 4.76 3.25 -0.35
Male 900 3.65 2.96
Working indoors all the time Female 1569 1.55 1.77 0.14
Male 892 1.81 2.05
Working more than 40 hours a week Female 1561 2.14 2.14 -0.12
Male 892 1.88 2.08
Working outdoors exposed to weather Female 1568 4.23 3.34 -0.41*
Male 896 2.94 2.85
Organizational Culture
5-point scale from 1= Least important to 5= Most important
Aggressiveness Female 1116 1.25 0.70 0.29
Male 616 1.49 1.00
Caring about employees Female 1117 3.53 1.31 -0.26
Male 615 3.18 1.37
Fairness / Justice Female 1117 3.20 1.33 -0.17
Male 615 2.97 1.40
Flexibility / adapting to change Female 1115 3.04 1.32 0
Male 616 3.04 1.34
Getting things done Female 1117 3.20 1.31 0.01
Male 615 3.21 1.37
Innovation Female 1117 2.98 1.40 0.24
Male 616 3.31 1.44
Openness and honesty Female 1116 3.45 1.26 -0.21
Male 615 3.18 1.31
Precision Female 1117 2.20 1.24 0.24
Male 615 2.50 1.34
Providing high quality products or services Female 1117 3.15 1.38 -0.01
Male 614 3.13 1.43
Self-control Female 1117 1.93 1.08 0.16
Male 614 2.11 1.17
Taking Chances Female 1115 2.18 1.22 0.02
Male 616 2.20 1.28
Valuing customers Female 1114 2.88 1.34 -0.15
Male 616 2.68 1.25

* Moderate difference, ** Large difference
Positive Cohen's d values indicate that the majority group scored higher than the minority group.

Age

For age analyses, people over 40 are the protected group. Out of the 138 scales, five results reached a moderate size. People over 40 scored slightly lower than people 39 or under on Organizational Culture of Precision (d = .48). However, they scored higher than people 39 or under on Preference Regarding Troubleshooting (d = -.53), Work Style of Integrity (d = -.55), Work Style of Dependability (d = -.45), and Organizational Culture of Valuing Customers (d = -.50).

Overall, these results suggest age differences are generally small. If anything, results tend to favor the protected group.

Scale Age Sample
Size
Average Standard Deviation Cohen's
d (?)
Holland Codes
5-point scale from 1=Hate it to 5=Love it
Artistic 40 or over 336 2.75 0.84 0.01
39 or under 2555 2.76 0.87
Conventional 40 or over 343 2.42 0.83 -0.09
39 or under 2568 2.34 0.83
Enterprising 40 or over 335 2.54 0.70 0.02
39 or under 2544 2.55 0.70
Investigative 40 or over 340 2.86 0.91 0.06
39 or under 2569 2.92 0.92
Realistic 40 or over 341 2.12 0.79 -0.05
39 or under 2573 2.08 0.80
Social 40 or over 341 2.96 0.71 -0.08
39 or under 2561 2.90 0.80
Work Styles / Personality
5-point scale from 1=Strongly disagree to 5=Strongly agree
Achievement/Effort 40 or over 288 3.57 0.61 0.13
39 or under 2218 3.66 0.71
Adaptability/Flexibility 40 or over 289 3.57 0.59 -0.22
39 or under 2202 3.44 0.61
Analytical thinking 40 or over 288 3.83 0.63 -0.12
39 or under 2199 3.75 0.74
Attention to detail 40 or over 287 3.46 0.70 0.15
39 or under 2208 3.57 0.74
Concern for others 40 or over 287 3.79 0.57 -0.12
39 or under 2210 3.71 0.69
Cooperation 40 or over 289 3.85 0.58 -0.12
39 or under 2207 3.78 0.61
Dependability 40 or over 290 4.14 0.50 -0.45*
39 or under 2201 3.84 0.68
Independence 40 or over 292 3.69 0.50 -0.33
39 or under 2214 3.51 0.56
Initiative 40 or over 285 3.72 0.53 -0.35
39 or under 2204 3.51 0.61
Innovation 40 or over 293 3.84 0.81 -0.13
39 or under 2227 3.73 0.85
Integrity 40 or over 287 4.12 0.57 -0.55*
39 or under 2207 3.71 0.76
Leadership 40 or over 295 3.35 0.87 -0.07
39 or under 2228 3.28 0.95
Persistence 40 or over 289 3.82 0.46 -0.21
39 or under 2207 3.70 0.62
Self control 40 or over 290 3.57 0.71 -0.02
39 or under 2212 3.55 0.75
Social orientation 40 or over 290 3.28 0.77 -0.11
39 or under 2213 3.19 0.82
Basic Interests
5-point scale from 1=Hate it to 5=Love it
Adventure 40 or over 277 2.62 0.90 0.23
39 or under 2083 2.84 0.97
Athletics 40 or over 277 2.60 0.98 -0.11
39 or under 2088 2.49 1.03
Beauty & style 40 or over 238 2.62 0.84 0.01
39 or under 1852 2.63 0.95
Business 40 or over 274 3.05 0.96 -0.16
39 or under 2095 2.90 1.01
Counseling and helping 40 or over 277 3.04 0.88 -0.05
39 or under 2088 3.00 0.94
Creative arts 40 or over 276 3.15 1.01 -0.03
39 or under 2093 3.12 1.08
Creative writing & journalism 40 or over 239 3.20 0.86 -0.12
39 or under 1861 3.08 1.07
Culinary arts 40 or over 277 2.84 0.91 -0.04
39 or under 2092 2.80 0.97
Engineering 40 or over 275 2.52 0.93 -0.04
39 or under 2092 2.49 0.97
Family activity 40 or over 237 3.56 0.65 -0.15
39 or under 1849 3.44 0.83
Finance 40 or over 275 2.65 0.98 -0.06
39 or under 2094 2.59 0.99
Green industry 40 or over 239 3.30 0.86 -0.06
39 or under 1863 3.25 0.95
Healthcare service 40 or over 276 2.69 0.86 0.06
39 or under 2089 2.74 0.94
Human relations management 40 or over 238 3.06 0.73 -0.25
39 or under 1854 2.85 0.86
Information technology 40 or over 277 2.50 0.97 -0.01
39 or under 2095 2.49 0.99
Law 40 or over 277 2.63 0.93 -0.09
39 or under 2087 2.54 1.00
Life science 40 or over 281 2.75 0.98 -0.04
39 or under 2124 2.71 0.97
Management 40 or over 276 2.83 0.88 -0.09
39 or under 2086 2.74 0.91
Manual labor 40 or over 277 1.91 0.72 -0.14
39 or under 2087 1.82 0.69
Mathematics 40 or over 238 2.36 0.96 0.04
39 or under 1863 2.41 1.09
Military 40 or over 236 1.85 0.97 0.11
39 or under 1852 1.95 1.02
Nature and agriculture 40 or over 237 2.61 0.71 -0.25
39 or under 1850 2.43 0.77
Office clerical work 40 or over 237 2.70 0.78 -0.13
39 or under 1849 2.60 0.81
Performing arts 40 or over 237 2.88 0.93 -0.11
39 or under 1855 2.77 1.04
Personal service 40 or over 238 2.64 0.68 -0.18
39 or under 1854 2.50 0.75
Physical science 40 or over 276 2.54 0.95 0.01
39 or under 2105 2.54 0.98
Politics 40 or over 239 2.40 0.95 -0.01
39 or under 1862 2.39 1.02
Professional advising 40 or over 238 3.24 0.88 -0.31
39 or under 1858 2.96 0.92
Protective services 40 or over 276 2.28 0.82 -0.09
39 or under 2086 2.20 0.84
Religion & spirituality 40 or over 239 2.66 0.95 -0.30
39 or under 1860 2.36 1.01
Sales 40 or over 238 2.37 0.93 -0.02
39 or under 1851 2.35 0.95
Skilled trades 40 or over 277 2.52 0.99 -0.26
39 or under 2091 2.27 0.96
Social sciences 40 or over 276 3.42 0.82 0.09
39 or under 2088 3.50 0.91
Teaching 40 or over 276 3.24 0.84 -0.22
39 or under 2096 3.03 0.98
Technical writing 40 or over 238 2.48 0.83 -0.31
39 or under 1859 2.22 0.83
Working with animals 40 or over 239 2.81 0.96 -0.04
39 or under 1864 2.77 1.04
Skills Preferences
5-point scale from 1=Important to avoid in my career to 5=Important to have in my career
Coordinating with people 40 or over 258 3.85 0.80 -0.08
39 or under 1986 3.78 0.90
Active listening 40 or over 257 3.96 0.75 -0.06
39 or under 1981 3.91 0.82
Being socially perceptive 40 or over 258 3.87 0.88 -0.12
39 or under 1974 3.76 0.94
Choosing equipment 40 or over 257 3.17 0.90 -0.09
39 or under 1979 3.08 0.93
Computer programming 40 or over 256 2.64 1.13 -0.13
39 or under 1992 2.50 1.09
Critical thinking 40 or over 258 3.96 0.81 0.05
39 or under 1984 4.00 0.88
Decision making 40 or over 258 3.99 0.77 -0.18
39 or under 1989 3.84 0.88
Designing equipment 40 or over 258 2.76 0.98 -0.02
39 or under 1983 2.74 1.01
Fixing things 40 or over 257 3.19 1.01 -0.10
39 or under 1984 3.08 1.09
Helping people 40 or over 256 4.00 0.77 -0.07
39 or under 1994 3.94 0.95
Installing equipment or programs 40 or over 258 2.53 1.01 -0.07
39 or under 1989 2.46 1.05
Learning new things 40 or over 257 4.35 0.66 0.12
39 or under 1986 4.43 0.65
Maintaining equipment 40 or over 257 2.60 1.07 0.02
39 or under 1980 2.62 0.99
Managing money 40 or over 258 3.12 0.98 -0.09
39 or under 1981 3.03 1.03
Managing people 40 or over 257 3.31 1.04 0.04
39 or under 1983 3.36 1.00
Managing things 40 or over 257 3.65 0.75 -0.16
39 or under 1980 3.51 0.89
Mathematics 40 or over 257 3.06 1.06 -0.05
39 or under 1996 3.01 1.14
Monitoring equipment 40 or over 258 2.62 0.94 -0.06
39 or under 1973 2.57 0.93
Monitoring performance 40 or over 258 3.46 0.87 -0.06
39 or under 1984 3.41 0.91
Negotiation 40 or over 257 3.18 1.00 0.00
39 or under 1981 3.18 1.06
Operating equipment 40 or over 258 2.92 1.02 -0.13
39 or under 1977 2.79 1.02
Performing quality control checks 40 or over 258 2.87 0.96 -0.11
39 or under 1971 2.76 0.97
Persuasion 40 or over 258 3.26 1.00 -0.04
39 or under 1977 3.22 1.04
Reading 40 or over 258 3.91 0.80 -0.03
39 or under 1982 3.89 0.87
Science 40 or over 258 3.06 1.00 0.16
39 or under 1983 3.24 1.15
Talking 40 or over 257 3.95 0.78 -0.09
39 or under 1997 3.87 0.92
Teaching 40 or over 257 3.68 0.91 -0.31
39 or under 1994 3.38 0.99
Time management 40 or over 257 3.62 0.81 -0.10
39 or under 1986 3.53 0.88
Troubleshooting 40 or over 257 3.95 0.79 -0.53*
39 or under 1979 3.45 0.97
Writing 40 or over 257 3.70 0.85 -0.13
39 or under 1983 3.57 1.01
Abilities Preferences
5-point scale from 1= Important to avoid in my career to 5= Important to have in my career
Coordination of limbs 40 or over 252 3.28 0.85 -0.09
39 or under 1949 3.20 0.89
Creative thinking 40 or over 254 4.20 0.76 -0.06
39 or under 1964 4.15 0.82
Deductive reasoning 40 or over 254 3.89 0.64 -0.12
39 or under 1934 3.79 0.83
Finger dexterity 40 or over 253 3.01 0.79 0.07
39 or under 1913 3.07 0.82
Flexibility 40 or over 253 3.91 0.73 -0.13
39 or under 1957 3.80 0.87
Focused attention 40 or over 254 3.90 0.68 -0.07
39 or under 1955 3.84 0.78
Foreseeing problems 40 or over 253 3.83 0.72 -0.06
39 or under 1950 3.79 0.80
Inductive reasoning 40 or over 254 3.83 0.72 -0.09
39 or under 1929 3.75 0.81
Manual dexterity 40 or over 254 3.20 0.82 -0.09
39 or under 1918 3.12 0.86
Memory 40 or over 254 3.70 0.79 0.00
39 or under 1955 3.70 0.85
Multitasking 40 or over 254 3.61 0.87 0.01
39 or under 1953 3.61 0.91
Physical endurance 40 or over 252 2.84 0.98 0.09
39 or under 1958 2.94 1.04
Physical strength 40 or over 254 2.89 0.95 -0.09
39 or under 1954 2.80 1.06
Reaction time 40 or over 254 3.32 0.82 -0.01
39 or under 1944 3.31 0.89
Spatial awareness 40 or over 254 3.56 0.81 -0.12
39 or under 1932 3.46 0.83
Visualization 40 or over 254 3.86 0.78 0.04
39 or under 1953 3.89 0.77
Can't Stands
5-point scale from 0=Don't mind at all, 1=Don't mind much, 3=Nice to avoid, 5=Important to avoid, 10=Must avoid!
Competition 40 or over 276 3.17 2.45 -0.09
39 or under 2075 2.95 2.57
Coordinating or leading others 40 or over 274 1.43 2.05 0.01
39 or under 2076 1.44 1.98
Cramped spaces & awkward positions 40 or over 275 5.50 3.07 -0.29
39 or under 2067 4.61 3.12
Dangerous work environment 40 or over 275 5.52 3.46 -0.26
39 or under 2072 4.65 3.34
Dealing with angry or rude people 40 or over 276 3.34 2.56 0.08
39 or under 2082 3.55 2.89
Dealing with customers 40 or over 275 1.73 2.12 0.12
39 or under 2077 2.00 2.28
Dealing with physically aggressive people 40 or over 275 6.09 3.23 -0.19
39 or under 2076 5.46 3.36
Driving a car or truck 40 or over 275 4.31 3.25 0.31
39 or under 2074 5.37 3.48
Exposure to heights 40 or over 275 3.91 3.28 -0.17
39 or under 2076 3.36 3.26
Frequent decision making 40 or over 276 1.18 1.72 0.15
39 or under 2076 1.45 1.78
Kneeling or crawling 40 or over 274 4.42 2.95 -0.29
39 or under 2067 3.55 2.99
Public speaking 40 or over 275 2.34 2.80 0.11
39 or under 2069 2.68 2.98
Repetitive motions 40 or over 275 2.92 2.34 -0.17
39 or under 2056 2.54 2.30
Resonsibility for people's health and safety 40 or over 275 2.49 2.27 0.03
39 or under 2068 2.56 2.49
Responsibity for results of others 40 or over 275 2.59 2.55 0.01
39 or under 2068 2.61 2.36
Sitting most of the time 40 or over 275 2.95 2.57 -0.21
39 or under 2073 2.44 2.38
Standing most of the time 40 or over 275 3.24 2.55 -0.26
39 or under 2073 2.59 2.45
Time pressure 40 or over 275 2.12 1.97 0.05
39 or under 2069 2.22 2.13
Unpredictable work schedules 40 or over 275 2.72 2.18 -0.06
39 or under 2067 2.57 2.29
Working in extreme temperatures 40 or over 275 4.80 3.19 -0.17
39 or under 2076 4.27 3.19
Working indoors all the time 40 or over 275 1.65 1.77 0.00
39 or under 2070 1.65 1.91
Working more than 40 hours a week 40 or over 274 2.23 2.17 -0.09
39 or under 2064 2.04 2.13
Working outdoors exposed to weather 40 or over 275 4.15 3.12 -0.15
39 or under 2074 3.67 3.21
Organizational Culture
5-point scale from 1= Least important to 5= Most important
Aggressiveness 40 or over 179 1.12 0.41 0.31
39 or under 1477 1.37 0.86
Caring about employees 40 or over 178 3.70 1.30 -0.23
39 or under 1478 3.39 1.34
Fairness / Justice 40 or over 178 3.06 1.24 0.04
39 or under 1478 3.11 1.38
Flexibility / adapting to change 40 or over 179 3.15 1.26 -0.07
39 or under 1476 3.05 1.34
Getting things done 40 or over 178 3.03 1.26 0.13
39 or under 1478 3.20 1.34
Innovation 40 or over 179 3.02 1.30 0.08
39 or under 1478 3.13 1.43
Openness and honesty 40 or over 178 3.61 1.10 -0.21
39 or under 1478 3.34 1.30
Precision 40 or over 178 1.75 0.97 0.48*
39 or under 1478 2.35 1.28
Providing high quality products or services 40 or over 178 3.60 1.27 -0.38
39 or under 1477 3.07 1.41
Self-control 40 or over 178 1.67 0.93 0.31
39 or under 1477 2.02 1.12
Taking Chances 40 or over 179 1.92 1.14 0.23
39 or under 1477 2.21 1.26
Valuing customers 40 or over 179 3.41 1.22 -0.50*
39 or under 1475 2.77 1.30

* Moderate difference, ** Large difference
Positive Cohen's d values indicate that the majority group scored higher than the minority group.