A cartographer will measure, analyze, and interpret geographic information to create maps and charts for political, cultural and educational purposes. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment, dating back many centuries. From the 15th to the 17th century, during the Age of Exploration, cartographers used maps that had been passed down for centuries to create new ones based on new surveying techniques and explorers' observations. Of course, the invention of the telescope, sextant and compass enabled increasing accuracy.

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